Ink Dating

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AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK – Anil Gupta Forensic Service

There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s.

raised by him in the matter of the age of the ink too, which is a good material available follows: “7. Forensic Science Expert to ascertain the age of the ink. 2.

The need to answer questions about documents has existed since the earliest days of civilisation! Documents include not only those of the familiar paper form but may include other items and materials that can bear information. Forensic document examination started with experts giving evidence on matters of disputed writings. The range of questions that may be posed to document examiners are varied and may include but are not limited to:. This range of questions requires comprehensive training on a wide range of topics.

That is why the training to become a forensic document examiner requires a minimum of two years of full time training under the tutelage of a fully trained document examiner.

Ink Dating Expert Witnesses

But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.

Analytical methods for ink dating; security documents: thursday, questioned. Dean jessee, electronics and make the are highly specialized forensic services.

Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.

Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used. The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.

This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.

Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical. The next step would be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two or more inks are the same or different formulations. In order to do this the following steps are taken:.

Ink dating — chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured.

Ink Experts

IFS is Govt. Act, ; UNI. MSYS ; also Regd. Court to examine various Documents, Handwriting and Signatures. We regularly receives cases from court, police and government departments. We also accept cases from private, public and individual clients.

Our services include ink age, handwriting, questioned documents, crime scene review of expert witness findings, Daubert and cold case re-investigations.

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World debut: the new ink system PURe is convincing printing experts

The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document.

An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks.

Ink, as well. Our services, and handwriting experts. In reaching a particularly challenging forensic. It tends to identify. Relative dating of.

Many writers, particularly those who write well and freely, are from time to time making slight but persistent changes in their handwriting. These changes are usually few in number compared with all the characteristics of the writing and do not change the general style, but often are sufficient, with adequate material for comparison, to show conclusively that a writing was made before or after a certain definite time. An interval of five years or even less, under certain health or changed business conditions, may show a number of permanent and significant changes.

Many reports has been given in this regard by Anil Gupta Forensic Services. An entirely new approach was made in a case, where date of signature on a typed letter dt. Earlier to know the age of the signature, age of document was determined by ink, paper, printing and subject matter examination. A detailed analysis of 61 signature specimens dt.

The examination showed a clear variation in the signatures with due course of time as natural variations. Using these variations the age of the signature was determined and reported. Many cases has been examined carefully and reports have been submitted and also appeared for evidence in the court regarding to determination of age of the signatures on the behalf of Anil Gupta Forensic Services and more study is also made and continuous to be made in this regard from the cases received by Anil Gupta Forensic Services for the determination of the age of the signature.

The examination of the ink with regard to determination of the age of the signature is correlated with each other. The inks may be printing ink, coping ink.

Cabinet of curiosities: 15,000 ink samples at Secret Service

Our Practice is the longest established private independent laboratory in Great Britain dealing with the examination of questioned documents. For more than five decades, the laboratory has had an international reputation and regularly receives instructions from all over the world. The laboratory has two document examiners who primarily undertake privately funded casework. Reports are prepared for a variety of courts, both Civil and Criminal in the UK and abroad. On occasions, Ellen Radley also undertakes Legally Aided matters, caseload permitting.

We routinely receive instructions to act a Single Joint Expert and are fully aware of the obligations and requirements under Part 35 of the CPR.

Contact our helpful staff today for credible ink analysis expert witnesses. patent law, ink differentiation and dating, forensic handwriting analysis, digital printing.

Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic.

Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written. When conducting examinations, forensic document examiners must have known specimens to which they compare the material in question.

These samples may come from any number of known sources, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine.

Ink dating expert

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Download Citation | A logical framework to ballpoint ink dating interpretation not yet fulfilled by actual ink dating methods for regulatory use in expert testimony​.

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Forensic Document Examination

Or stops a counterfeit ring. Or identify the D. The ink library at the lab contains more than 15, samples of pen, marker and printer inks dating back to the s. The collection is the result of one man, Antonio Cantu, a renowned investigator and former chief chemist at the Secret Service who started picking up samples in the s. Cantu died unexpectedly last year, and the Secret Service recently dedicated the lab in his honor.

Find nationwide Ink Dating expert witnesses providing testimony and expert opinion in a court of law, for plaintiff and defense attorneys.

Ink , fluid or paste of various colours, but usually black or dark blue, used for writing and printing. It is composed of a pigment or dye dissolved or dispersed in a liquid called the vehicle. Writing inks date from about bc and were used in ancient Egypt and China. They consisted of lampblack ground with a solution of glue or gums, molded into sticks, and allowed to dry.

Before use, the sticks were mixed with water. Various coloured juices, extracts, and suspensions of substances from plants, animals, and minerals also have been used as inks, including alizarin, indigo, pokeberries, cochineal, and sepia. For many centuries, a mixture of a soluble iron salt with an extract of tannin was used as a writing ink and is the basis of modern blue-black inks. The modern inks usually contain ferrous sulfate as the iron salt with a small amount of mineral organic acid.

The resulting solution is light bluish black and, if used alone on paper, appears only faintly.

Ink dating experts

Foothill Boulevard. Provides investigation, forensic and litigation support to individuals, companies and firms. Our services include ink age, handwriting, questioned documents, crime scene evaluation, ink analysis, age determination, printer and toner analysis, authenticity, fraud investigations, fingerprints, review of expert witness findings, Daubert and cold case re-investigations.

We would be pleased to discuss the aspects of your case with you.

Date: 11 Nov, Date: 26 Apr, Kartar Singh held that age of the ink cannot be dete the trial Court the expert had stated that the determination of the​.

Apart from the microscopic examination and the use of optical methods to examine various items exhibits that may reveal evidence about the document source or whether or not a nexus exits between various documents, there may be a need to chemically analyse the materials used in the document production. This may involve analysis of the substrate paper, film, etc.

With these types of analyses the inorganic and organic components of the substances can be determined and the results can be compared to various data bases that can assist in determining the type and who manufactured the material used. SDS is routinely involved in writing Ink and Paper analysis and has been involved in many cases where this evidence has been beneficial. Writing inks: The analysis of the writing inks used on a document can produce useful information such as; type of ink used and who manufactured that ink, how many different types of inks have been used, have ink entries on a document been altered, added or substituted, could certain entries be written contemporaneously or at different times and when could the document have been signed or written?

Non destructive techniques are used in the first instance and involve microscopic, variable wavelength light source illumination techniques Polilight etc. The use of different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum provides an examiner with a large number of different techniques to determine the optical properties and some of these techniques are used routinely to reveal, faded, erased and obliterated entries pencil and ink or used to examine damaged documents which have been burnt, water or solvent affected or even digested!

In situations where the inks have similar optical properties, and appear indistinguishable there will be a need to resort to further non destructive analysis microspectrophotometry etc.

Duel of the Dating Experts!