Dating, sex, and schooling in urban Kenya.
With a population of more than Kisumu City is the third largest city and also an inland port on Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Nakuru and Eldoret. According to archaeological dating of associated artifacts and skeletal material, the Cushites first settled in the lowlands of Kenya between 3, and 1, BC, a phase referred to as the Lowland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic. Nilotic -speaking pastoralists ancestral to Kenya’s Nilotic speakers started migrating from present-day southern Sudan into Kenya around BC. Modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in and the subsequent Kenya Colony , which began in Numerous disputes between the UK and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution , which began in , and the subsequent declaration of independence in
Dating, sex, and schooling in urban Kenya
The country was a de facto one-party state from until , after which time the ruling Kenya African National Union KANU changed the constitution to make itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in and , which were marred by violence and fraud.
Despite the significant proportion of young people residing in slum communities, little attention has been paid to the sexual and reproductive health SRH challenges they face during their transition to adulthood within this harsh environment. Little is known about the extent to which living in extreme environments, like slums, impact SRH outcomes, especially during this key developmental period. This paper aims to fill this research gap by examining the levels of and factors associated with unintended pregnancies among young women aged 15—22 in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.
We use data from two waves of a 3-year prospective survey that collected information from adolescents living in the two slums in — In total, young women aged 15—22 were considered for analysis. We employed Cox and logistic regression models to investigate factors associated with timing of pregnancy experience and unintended pregnancy among adolescents who were sexually active by Wave 1 or Wave 2. Multivariate analysis shows a significant association between a set of factors including age at first sex, schooling status, living arrangements and timing of pregnancy experience.
In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are the only factors that are significantly associated with unintended pregnancy among the young women. Overall, this study underscores the importance of looking at reproductive outcomes of early sexual initiation, the serious health risks early fertility entail, especially among out-of school girls, and sexual activity in general among young women living in slum settlements.
Co-ed vs. Single Sex Schools
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. It should not be surprising that adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, who have the highest rates of fertility for their age in the world, face probably the highest risks of pregnancy-related mortality, of delivery complications, and of premature births or low-birthweight babies.
Teenage pregnancy in Africa also has important social and economic outcomes, the most highly publicized of which stem from lost educational opportunities when pregnancy forces young women to leave school. Because there has been. While early childbearing in some cases leads to higher child and maternal mortality, it is quite reasonable to assume that it has important effects on population levels and growth, especially in populations that appear to be governed largely by natural fertility.
Email: Password:. Sign in. In this paper we examine descriptively the relationships between completed secondary education and social, informational, and economic adulthood outcomes of 15—24 year old males and females in Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda. We find that completing secondary education is associated with higher media access and somewhat better health related knowledge. However we also find that completing secondary education is not necessarily associated with a greater sense of agency within the family, disapproval of domestic violence against women and preference for female children.
Importantly we find that those with completed secondary education are not necessarily more likely to be employed than those without. Chudgar, A.
Dating, Sex, and Schooling in Urban Kenya
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Kenya ‘s 1st census, in , counted 5. Development planning began in ; the current 5-year plan stresses manpower, capital, and land development, mainly in the West. The government considers population growth an obstacle to meeting educational, health, housing, food, and employment needs. The government intends to reduce population growth to 3. Life expectancy is currently Most health problems relate to childbearing, communicable diseases, malnutrition, and poor sanitation.
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To investigate the association between gender norms about romantic relationships and sexual experiences of very young male adolescents VYMA living in Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to, respectively, explore and validate the factor structure underlying gender norms scale items. We used structural equation modelling to assess the association between gender norms and sexual experiences of VYMA.
We found high endorsement of heteronormative beliefs about romantic relationships and low endorsement of sexual double standards. Sexual experience was associated with low endorsement of heteronormative beliefs, being pre-pubertal, school absenteeism and being below recommended grade for age.
In addition, marital status, schooling status, age at first sex and living arrangements are In Kenya, for example, 45% of all sexually active unmarried circumcision, marriage and dating, sexual behavior, contraceptive use.
But remember: You have to decide what is best for you. Some students simply prefer single-sex schools while others prefer co-ed schools. But how do you decide? Others enjoy the camaraderie that often connects classmates at single-sex schools. For one thing, student diversity suffers at a single sex school. In addition, although it may be easier for students to participate actively and do well academically at a single sex institution, the real world is not single sex.
It may prove difficult for students from single sex schools to adjust to a co-ed work atmosphere after they graduate. Co-ed schools are likely to offer you more in the way of student diversity.
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Although rising age at marriage has led to a decline in adolescent fertility in Kenya, the proportion of births to teenagers that occur prior to marriage is increasing. Demographic and Health Surve Although no data are available with which to address the issue of whether the secular increase in school participation in Kenya has led to a rise in premarital sexual activity, the extent to which More than half of teenage childbearing in Kenya now results from a premarital conception.
Reliable data on trends in sexual activity prior to marriage are nonexistent.
Population ageing in Kenya: trends and broad responses been developed to date. nutrition in schools and other institutions (including care institutions for older This data source offers potential age-and sex disaggregated cross-sectional and Broad living conditions of older people in rural and urban areas.
Metrics details. Age disparities in sexual relationships have been proposed as a key risk factor for HIV transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa, but evidence remains inconclusive. The SIHR study, a cluster randomised trial of a cash transfer programme in Malawi, found that young women in the intervention groups were less likely to have had a sexual partner aged 25 or older, and less likely to test positive for HIV and HSV-2 at follow-up compared to control groups.
We examined the hypotheses that girls in the intervention groups had smaller age differences than control groups and that large age differences were associated with relationship-level HIV transmission risk factors: inconsistent condom use, sex frequency, and relationship duration. We investigated the effects of study arm, trial stage and participant age on age differences in sexual relationships using a linear mixed-effects model.
Cumulative-link mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effect of relationship age difference on condom use and sex frequency, and a Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effect of relationship age difference on relationship duration. Among controls, after the cash transfers had ended the average age difference was 0. Across treatment groups, larger age differences in relationships were associated with lower levels of condom use, more frequent sex, and longer relationship durations.
Cash-transfer programmes may prevent HIV transmission in part by encouraging young women to form age-similar relationships, which are characterised by increased condom use and reduced sex frequency. The benefits of these programmes may extend to those who are not directly receiving the cash. Peer Review reports.